What Are Exosomes?

Cells communicate with each other using cytokines. Cytokines are proteins that are excreted by one cell and instruct other cells what to do. This is one of the ways stem cells work; by orchestrating a repair response through other cells, like a mechanic making sure all of a vehicle’s parts are kept up to keep an engine running smooth.

Exosomes are small packets of proteins and RNA that bud off the outer wall of the cell. What is really fascinating is they can carry is mRNA.

What is mRNA?

Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression. RNA polymerase transcribes primary transcript mRNA into processed, mature mRNA. (Wikipedia)